Authorship: No one knows for sure who wrote the book of Hebrews. The contenders are Paul, Barnabas, Luke, and Apollo.
Audience: It was written for the Jewish Christians or Messianic Jews, of 1st century Israel.
Argument: The author argued that Jesus is superior to the Levitical priesthood system, superior to angels, superior to Moses, superior to Joshua, superior in His ministry as Son of Man and Son of God.
V 1-2, 1 God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, 2 has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds;
God spoke to us in various ways, through creation, through conscience, through angels, and prophets. In these last days, God spoke to us through His Son, Jesus Christ, the Word.
VV3-4, 3 who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.
Who is Jesus?
Inheritor: He was appointed the heir of all things, v2. Ephesians 1:18, “I pray that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened in order that you may know the hope to which he has called you, the riches of his glorious inheritance in His holy people’.
Creator: He created the universe, v2. The Father created the universe through the Son by the power of the Holy Spirit.
Radiator: He is the radiance of God’s glory, v3.
Representer: He is the exact representation of God, v3.
Sustainer: He sustains all things by His powerful word. Jesus holds all things together by the power of His word. Even atoms are held together by Him.
Purifier: He provided purification for sins, v3. Jesus paid the penalty of our sins on the cross.
Ruler: He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven and intercedes on our behalf, V4. Romans 8:34, “Who then is the one who condemns? No one. Christ Jesus who died–more than that, who was raised to life–is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us”.
Superior to angels, v4. Beware of the Jehovah witness’ heresy. Jesus is not the brother of archangel Micheal! Beware of Mormon’s heresy. Jesus is not the brother of Lucifer! Do not worship angels. Revelation 22: 8-9, “……….And when I heard and saw, I fell down to worship at the feet of the angel who showed me these things. But he said to me, ‘Do not do that. I am a fellow servant of yours and of your brethren the prophets and of those who heed the words of this book. Worship God’ “.
V5-8, 5 For to which of the angels did He ever say: “You are My Son, Today I have begotten You”? And again: “I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son”? 6 But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says: “Let all the angels of God worship Him.” 7 And of the angels He says: “Who makes His angels spirits, And His ministers a flame of fire.” 8 But to the Son He says: “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom.
Firstborn does not mean first in chronology but first in priority and supremacy. Jesus was first in priority and supremacy over angels. Even angels bowed down and worshiped Jesus. Revelation 7:11, “All the angels were standing around the throne and around the elders and the four living creatures. They fell down on their faces before the throne and worshiped God’.
The author quoted Psalm 45:6, “Your throne, O God, will last forever and ever; a scepter of justice will be the scepter of your kingdom”. On the cross, Jesus called the Father God. Here the Father called Jesus God. Father and Jesus shared the same Godhead of the Trinity.
V 9 You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You, With the oil of gladness more than Your companions.”
The author quoted Psalm 45:7, “You love righteousness and hate wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy”.
Joy or happiness is directly proportional to holiness. The more holy you are, the more joy you will experience. Jesus loves righteousness, and God anointed Him with the oil of joy.
VV 10-14, 10 And: “You, Lord, in the beginning, laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands. 11 They will perish, but You remain; And they will all grow old like a garment; 12 Like a cloak You will fold them up, And they will be changed. But You are the same, And Your years will not fail.” 13 But to which of the angels has He ever said: “Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool”? 14 Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who will inherit salvation?
The author quoted Psalm 102: 25, “In the beginning, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands’’. Isaiah 51:6, ‘’Lift up your eyes to the heavens, look at the earth beneath; the heavens will vanish like smoke, the earth will wear out like a garment and its inhabitants die like flies. But my salvation will last forever, my righteousness will never fail”. Psalm 110:1, The LORD says to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”