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Book: Pastoral Epistle

by Dr. Andrew C S Koh

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A Christ-centred, Biblical-based, Holy Spirit-enabled, Life-changing commentary, bible study, and devotion



Archbishop Ng Moon Hing, Anglican Archbishop of Southeast Asia

Paul’s pastoral letters are, as good as, his last testament. He knew his time was coming to an end soon. With his last and final exhortation to his disciples, he continued to press home the point to ‘be faithful’ to Christ, as he himself has been throughout his ministry. What a great and amazing disciple of Christ, Paul was – one who irrespective of the terrible treatments he had received from his persecutors and the enemies of the Gospel, yet he could say that ” I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith.” Paul, too, did not deliberately only say the nice things to present a good picture of himself and his ministry.

He was very firm with right theological understanding as well as proper and holy living. So, he did not mince his words to lash out at those who taught heretical doctrines and those who practised immoral and impure living. He recognised that the churches had been infiltrated with many worldly influences and traditions. Thus, he strongly condemned the inconsistent and improper elements that had existed in the churches that caused divisions and destroyed good testimonies. He encouraged his beloved disciples, Timothy and Titus, to return to teach the redemptive work of Christ.

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1 timothy, 2 timothy, Titus, Lesson 9

Lesson 9


Heavenly Father, may the words of our mouths, the thoughts and meditations of our hearts be acceptable to You. May You and the Holy Spirit’s anointing be with us to open our spiritual eyes, ears, hearts, and minds to understand and apply Your teaching, in Jesus’ name, Amen.

2 Timothy 1: 1-18, salutation, prayer, instructions

VV 1-2, 1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus, 2 To Timothy, a beloved son. Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.

Paul spelled out his credentials, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God will according to the promise of God. Paul pronounced a blessing of grace, mercy, and peace to the recipient of this epistle, Timothy, his protege and spiritual god-son in the faith.

VV 3-7, 3 I thank God, whom I serve with a pure conscience, as my forefathers did, as without ceasing I remember you in my prayers night and day, 4 greatly desiring to see you, being mindful of your tears, that I may be filled with joy, 5 when I call to remembrance the genuine faith that is in you, which dwelt first in your grandmother Lois and your mother Eunice, and I am persuaded is in you also. 6 Therefore I remind you to stir up the gift of God which is in you through the laying on of my hands. 7 For God has not given us a spirit of fear, but of power and of love and of a sound mind.

Paul thanked God in prayer day and night without ceasing, with a pure conscience, and a great desire to see Timothy. Timothy’s messianic Christian grandmother, Lois, and mother, Eunice, nurtured him in the faith from a young age. Paul imparted spiritual gifts to Timothy through the laying of hands. Paul encouraged Timothy to be bold because the indwelling of the Holy Spirit will anoint him with power and a sound mind.

VV 8-11, 8 Therefore do not be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me His prisoner, but share with me in the sufferings for the gospel according to the power of God, 9 who has saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace which was given to us in Christ Jesus before time began, 10 but has now been revealed by the appearing of our Savior Jesus Christ, who has abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel, 11 to which I was appointed a preacher, an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.

Paul encouraged Timothy to share in his sufferings, and not be ashamed of him and the gospel of Christ. The gospel had the power of God to save lives, Romans 1:16. God saved us with a Holy calling, not according to our works but according to grace. grave. He saved us by grace through faith. Jesus Christ through His incarnation abolished death on the cross, brought eternal life and immortality to those who believe in Him. Paul spelled out his credentials again, preacher, apostle, and teacher to the Gentiles.

Romans 1:16, “For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek’’.

V 12, For this reason, I also suffer these things; nevertheless, I am not ashamed, for I know whom I have believed and am persuaded that He is able to keep what I have committed to Him until that Day.

Paul was not ashamed of the gospel despite suffering and persecutions, because he believed that Christ was able to keep all that he had committed to Him until His second coming.

VV 13-18, 13 Hold fast the pattern of sound words which you have heard from me, in faith and love which are in Christ Jesus. 14 That good thing which was committed to you, keep by the Holy Spirit who dwells in us. 15 This you know, that all those in Asia have turned away from me, among whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes. 16 The Lord grant mercy to the household of Onesiphorus, for he often refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain; 17 but when he arrived in Rome, he sought me out very zealously and found me. 18 The Lord grant to him that he may find mercy from the Lord in that Day, and you know very well how many ways he ministered to me at Ephesus.

Paul encouraged Timothy to believe in sound doctrine with faith and love. Many of his supporters in Asia Minor including Phygellus and Hermogenes had deserted him. Paul prayed for the family of Onesiphorus, his faithful supporter and co-worker in the faith, who was not ashamed of him and ministered to him in many ways at Ephesus.


Paul’s instructions to Timothy also apply to us. We are to believe in sound doctrines with faith and love. We should not be ashamed of the gospel despite suffering, tribulations, and persecutions, because it is the power of God to save lives. We are to persist and persevere in prayer every day, giving thanks to God, and interceding for our family, friends, and associates.


Heavenly Father, help us to hold firmly to sound doctrines with faith and love. Help us not be ashamed of the gospel because it had the power to save lives. Help us give thanks to You every day in prayer and intercessions for our family, friends, and associates, in Jesus’ name, Amen.


1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, lesson 8

Lesson 8


Heavenly Father, we pray for You to speak to us to convict, correct, encourage, and train us in godly and righteous living. We pray for the divine transformation of hearts, renewal of minds, and discerning Your good and perfect will, in Jesus’ name, Amen.

Introduction to 2 Timothy:

Author, date, recipient, setting:

After Paul’s release from his first Roman imprisonment in 62 AD, he visited old and planted new churches in Macedonia and Asia Minor. He was rearrested by the Romans in 66 AD and thrown into the Roman Mamertine prison. Here, Paul wrote 2 Timothy between 66-67 AD. This was his deathbed epistle, before passing his legacy and the gospel baton to Timothy. Paul urged Timothy to bring him his cloak, books, and parchments to Rome. Paul encouraged Timothy to remain strong and faithful in the face of opposition, persecutions, and suffering. Paul was executed by decapitation in 67 AD.


Some of the main themes include the Christian’s response to suffering, the gospel basis for endurance, the saving power of the gospel, and the danger of heretic doctrine.


1: 1-18, Salutation, prayer, instructions

2: 1-26, endure hardships, an approved teacher of God’s words

3: 1-17, apostasy, heresy, Word of God

4: 1- 22, preach the gospel, come before winter, farewell


2 Timothy was Paul’s last written document. He had done everything that he could for the Lord. He faced the prospect of brutal death. He had fought the great spiritual battle and ran the marathon spiritual racer faith. The Christian faith is a super marathon relay race. Paul passed the gospel baton to Timothy who in turn would pass it on to the next generation. The gospel baton has passed from generation to generation for 2000 years and it is now in our hands. Our duty is the pass the gospel baton to the next generation for them to carry and pass on to the next. We are to pass the gospel baton of faith to our children and our children’s children, by teaching, encouraging, conviction, correcting, and training them in godly and righteous living. We should not drop the baton that is in our hands!


Heavenly Father, we pray for divine enablement and empowerment to pass the gospel baton of faith to our children. We pray for biblical literacy, biblical knowledge, and biblical education to prepare ourselves for this great undertaking. We pray for the salvation of our descendants, in Jesus’ name, Amen.


Bible Study: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy & Titus

Lesson 7


1 Timothy 6:1-21, slaves, masters, warning against false teachers and love for money

VV 1-2, 1 Let as many bondservants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honor, so that the name of God and His doctrine may not be blasphemed. 2 And those who have believing masters, let them not despise them because they are brethren, but rather serve them because those who are benefited are believers and beloved. Teach and exhort these things.

Christians who were slaves should honor their masters, particularly if they were Christians. Christians who were slaves should serve their Christian masters as brothers in Christ.

VV 3-5, 3 If anyone teaches otherwise and does not consent to wholesome words, even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which accords with godliness, 4 he is proud, knowing nothing, but is obsessed with disputes and arguments over words, from which come envy, strife, reviling, evil suspicions, 5 useless wranglings of men of corrupt minds and destitute of the truth, who suppose that godliness is a means of gain. From such withdraw yourself.

Paul warned Timothy to reject pedlars of gnostic heretic doctrines, who were proud, ignorant, argumentative, envious, aggressive, abusive, evil, corrupt, deceptive, greedy and misused the gospel for financial gain.

VV 6-10, 6 Now godliness with contentment is great gain. 7 For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out. 8 And having food and clothing, with these we shall be content. 9 But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and harmful lusts which drown men in destruction and perdition. 10 For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil, for which some have strayed from the faith in their greediness, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.

Godliness and contentment are great Christian virtues to embrace. Everyone entered the world without anything and will leave the world without anything. Everyone should be contented to have the necessities of life such as food and clothing. Anyone who desires to get rich fell into the temptation of sin and destroys themselves. All the evils of the world are due to money greediness and not to money per se.

VV 11-12, 11 But you, O man of God, flee these things and pursue righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, gentleness. 12 Fight the good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal life, to which you were also called, and have confessed the good confession in the presence of many witnesses.

Addressing Timothy as a man of God, Paul encouraged him to pursue righteousness, godliness, faithfulness, love, patience, and gentleness. These are some of the fruit of the Spirit, Galatians 5:22-23. Paul encouraged Timothy to fight the good fight of faith and claim the promise of eternal life.

Galatians 5:22-23, “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control. Against such there is no law”.

VV 13-16, 13 I urge you in the sight of God who gives life to all things, and before Christ Jesus who witnessed the good confession before Pontius Pilate, 14 that you keep this commandment without spot, blameless until our Lord Jesus Christ’s appearing, 15 which He will manifest in His own time, He who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings and Lord of lords, 16 who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or can see, to whom be honor and everlasting power. Amen.

Paul urged Timothy before creator God and Jesus Christ as his witnesses to obey Christ’s commandments above reproach until His second coming. Greek for potentate is “dunastes”, which means Prince. Verse 15 is a doxology. Jesus Christ, the Prince, King of Kings, and Lord of lords is immortal, glorious, and invisible, who had the honor and everlasting power.

VV 17-19, 17 Command those who are rich in this present age not to be haughty, nor to trust in uncertain riches but in the living God, who gives us richly all things to enjoy. 18 Let them do good, that they be rich in good works, ready to give, willing to share, 19 storing up for themselves a good foundation for the time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life.

Those who are rich in this present life should not be proud and trust in uncertain riches but in the living God. They should be rich in doing good works, generous, and willing to share to store up for treasures in heaven.

Matthew 6:19-20, “Do not store up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moths and vermin destroy, and where thieves break in and steal. But store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where moths and vermin do not destroy, and where thieves do not break in and steal.”

VV 20-21, 20 O Timothy! Guard what was committed to your trust, avoiding the profane and idle babblings and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge, 21 by professing it some have strayed concerning the faith.

Grace be with you. Amen.

Paul instructed Timothy to avoid blasphemy, foolish talks, and false doctrines that will lead Christians away from the faith. Paul pronounced a blessing of grace to Timothy.


Paul’s instructions to Timothy also apply to us. We are to treat our employers with respect especially if they are Christians. We are to reject pedlars of heretic doctrines. We are to embrace godliness with contentment. We should not stay away from pride, materialism, and money greediness. We should avoid blasphemy and foolish talks.


Heavenly Father, thank You for this timely message on the employee-employer relationship, heresy, and correct handling of money. We pray for wisdom to understand and apply Paul’s instructions to Timothy into our lives as these instructions transcend time and culture, in Jesus’ name, Amen.


Bible Study: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Lesson 6

Verse=by-verse into the WORD is the teaching ministry of Dr. Andrew C S Koh

Lesson 6


1 Timothy 5: 1-25, Christian relationships, care for widows, family, elders

VV 1-2, 1 Do not rebuke an older man but exhort him as a father, younger men as brothers, 2 older women as mothers, younger women as sisters, with all purity.

Paul instructed Timothy to respect older men as fathers, younger men as brothers, older women as mothers, and younger women as sisters in Christ with a pure heart.

VV 3-7, 3 Honor widows who are really widows. 4 But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them first learn to show piety at home and to repay their parents; for this is good and acceptable before God. 5 Now she who is really a widow, and left alone, trusts in God and continues in supplications and prayers night and day. 6 But she who lives in pleasure is dead while she lives. 7 And these things command, that they may be blameless.

Paul instructed Timothy to honor and support the welfare of widows who had no children and were faithful to God in prayers and supplications. Widows who had children should be looked after by their children. Paul rebuked widows who indulged in the pleasures of life. Widows should remain above reproach in their conduct.

VV 8-10, 8 But if anyone does not provide for his own, and especially for those of his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever. 9 Do not let a widow under sixty years old be taken into the number, and not unless she has been the wife of one man, 10 well reported for good works: if she has brought up children, if she has lodged strangers, if she has washed the saints’ feet, if she has relieved the afflicted, if she has diligently followed every good work.

Christians should take care of their family members. Younger widows under 60 years should not be taken into the welfare list, unless they were monogamous, had good reputations in the community, raised children, received strangers, served Christians, helped the afflicted, and were diligent in good works.

VV 11-16, 11 But refuse the younger widows; for when they have begun to grow wanton against Christ, they desire to marry, 12 having condemnation because they have cast off their first faith. 13 And besides they learn to be idle, wandering about from house to house, and not only idle but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not. 14 Therefore I desire that the younger widows marry, bear children, manage the house, give no opportunity to the adversary to speak reproachfully. 15 For some have already turned aside after Satan. 16 If any believing man or woman has widows, let them relieve them and do not let the church be burdened, that it may relieve those who are really widows.

Younger widows should not be taken into the welfare list because they tended to remarry, be lazy, gossip, and busy minding other people’s affairs. Paul encouraged younger widows to remarry, raise children, and manage their household without reproach. Any Christian who had widows in their household should take care of them and not burden the church.

VV 17-18, 17 Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and doctrine. 18 For the Scripture says, “You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain,” and, “The laborer is worthy of his wages.”

Greek for elder is “presbuteros”, which means an elder of a Christian church. “Presbuteros” is similar to “episcopos”, which means bishop or overseer. Elders who teach the Bible should be honored and remunerated accordingly.

VV 19-20, 19 Do not receive an accusation against an elder except from two or three witnesses. 20 Those who are sinning rebuke in the presence of all, that the rest also may fear.

Any accusation against an elder must be supported by two or three witnesses. Paul instructed Timothy to rebuke those who sinned in the presence of everyone as a deterrent to others.

VV 21-22, 21 I charge you before God and the Lord Jesus Christ and the elect angels that you observe these things without prejudice, doing nothing with partiality. 22 Do not lay hands on anyone hastily, nor share in other people’s sins; keep yourself pure.

Paul instructed Timothy to observe these things without any bias or favoritism. Paul instructed Timothy not to take action on anyone in haste and to keep himself pure.

VV 23-25, 23 No longer drink only water but use a little wine for your stomach’s sake and your frequent infirmities. 24 Some men’s sins are clearly evident, preceding them to judgment, but those of some men follow later. 25 Likewise, the good works of some are clearly evident, and those that are otherwise cannot be hidden.

Paul instructed Timothy to drink a little wine for his stomach’s ailment and other frequent illnesses. Paul instructed Timothy to discern between sinful people and good people.


Paul’s instructions to Timothy also apply to us. We are to respect elderly people, younger people, widows, family members, and spiritual teachers of the Word. We should look after the welfare of our family members and others who require support without bias. There will be plenty of opportunities to apply this during the coronavirus pandemic


Heavenly Father, we pray for mercy and grace to go through this coronavirus pandemic. We confessed that we have sinned against You through the millennium. We stand in the gap to intercede for Your mercy, grace, and forgiveness to end this pandemic as soon as possible, in Jesus’ name, Amen.


1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Lesson 5

Lesson 5


1 Timothy 4: 1-16, warning on apostasy, teach sound doctrines, exercise spiritual gifts.

V V 1-4, 1 Now the Spirit expressly says that in latter times some will depart from the faith, giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons, 2 speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their own conscience seared with a hot iron, 3 forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4 For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be refused if it is received with thanksgiving; 5 for it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.

Greek for depart from the faith is “apostasia”, which means apostasy. In the last days, some Christians will become apostate, believing in demonic spirits, doctrines, and lies with hypocrisy and hardened conscience. These heretic teachers prohibited marriage and abstention of certain foods against the teaching of biblical truth.

VV 6-11, 6 If you instruct the brethren in these things, you will be a good minister of Jesus Christ, nourished in the words of faith and of the good doctrine which you have carefully followed. 7 But reject profane and old wives’ fables, and exercise yourself toward godliness. 8 For bodily exercise profits a little, but godliness is profitable for all things, having promise of the life that now is and of that which is to come. 9 This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptance. 10 For to this end we both labor and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Savior of all men, especially of those who believe. 11 These things command and teach.

Paul instructed Timothy as a minister of Christ, to nourish Christians with sound doctrines based on biblical truth, rejecting myths and old wives’ tales. Physical exercise is good for physical health but the advantage is temporal. Spiritual exercise is good for spiritual health and the advantage is eternal. To this end, Paul labored and suffered persecutions. God is a living God and Savior of all people who believe.

VV 12-16, 12 Let no one despise your youth, but be an example to the believers in word, in conduct, in love, in spirit, in faith, in purity. 13 Till I come, give attention to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine. 14 Do not neglect the gift that is in you, which was given to you by prophecy with the laying on of the hands of the eldership. 15 Meditate on these things; give yourself entirely to them, that your progress may be evident to all. 16 Take heed to yourself and to the doctrine. Continue in them, for in doing this you will save both yourself and those who hear you.

Paul encouraged Timothy not to feel inferior because of his youth, and to be a role model for Christians through good conduct, love, spirituality, faithfulness, and purity of heart. Paul instructed Timothy to read, study, encourage, teach the word of truth, and exercise spiritual gifts imparted to him by the elders through the laying of hands. Timothy was to meditate on scriptures and teach the doctrines to save himself and those who heard him.


What happened in first-century Israel also happened today. Many Christians will fall away from the faith because of the teachings of heretic doctrines. The only way to discern heretic doctrines is to be biblically literate. This can only be done by spending time studying scripture diligently and regularly. The Bible has 1189 chapters. By reading 4 chapters a day, you should have read the Bible in 300 days. I will encourage that you start now. If you are biblically literate, no one can deceive you


Heavenly Father, we acknowledged that You are Lord, God, Almighty. We confessed that we are sinners saved by grace. We thank You for all that You have done for us in our lives. We pray for protection from the coronavirus pandemic. We pray that You will end this pestilence, in Jesus’ name, Amen.


1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, lesson 4

Lesson 4


Heavenly Father, we pray for the anointing of the Holy Spirit to help us in the exegesis and hermeneutics of scripture. We pray for wisdom in unlocking the meaning of controversial and difficult passages, in Jesus’ name, Amen.

1 Timothy 3: 1-16, criteria for selecting overseers and deacons

VV 1-7, 1 This is a faithful saying: If a man desires the position of a bishop, he desires a good work. 2 A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, temperate, sober-minded, of good behavior, hospitable, able to teach; 3 not given to wine, not violent, not greedy for money, but gentle, not quarrelsome, not covetous; 4 one who rules his own house well, having his children in submission with all reverence 5 (for if a man does not know how to rule his own house, how will he take care of the church of God?); 6 not a novice, lest being puffed up with pride he fall into the same condemnation as the devil. 7 Moreover he must have a good testimony among those who are outside, lest he falls into reproach and the snare of the devil.

Greek for bishop is “episcopos”, which means overseer. A bishop must have a desire for the position. Greek for sober-minded is ‘’nepho”, which means not intoxicated by wine. Paul spelled out the criteria required for selecting a bishop. He must be without reproach, monogamous, self-controlled, not intoxicated by wine, of good character, hospitable, has teaching capability, gentle, abstain from wine, not violent, not money greedy, and not covetous. He must show good family leadership with children with good character. He must have a good testimony among non-believers and must not be a novice in the Christian faith.

VV 8-13, 8 Likewise deacons must be reverent, not double-tongued, not given to much wine, not greedy for money, 9 holding the mystery of the faith with a pure conscience. 10 But let these also first be tested; then let them serve as deacons, being found blameless. 11 Likewise, their wives must be reverent, not slanderers, temperate, faithful in all things. 12 Let deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well. 13 For those who have served well as deacons obtain for themselves a good standing and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus.

Greek for deacon is “diakonos”, which means servant. Greek for a double tongue is “dilogos”, which means deceitful. Greek for slanderer is “diabolos”, which means backbiter. Paul listed out the criteria for selecting a deacon. He must be respectable, not deceitful, not a drunkard, not money greedy, and has a pure conscience. Their wives must be respectable, not a backbiter, self-controlled, and faithful. Deacons must be monogamous and had raised their families beyond reproach.

VV 14-16, 14 These things I write to you, though I hope to come to you shortly; 15 but if I am delayed, I write so that you may know how you ought to conduct yourself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 16 And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifested in the flesh, Justified in the Spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the Gentiles, Believed on in the world, Received up in glory.

Paul hoped to visit Timothy soon. Paul encouraged Timothy to conduct himself above reproach in godliness in the church of the living God. Jesus is God manifested in the flesh through incarnation. He is justified by the Holy Spirit, seen by angels, preached to the Gentiles, believed by the world, and ascended to heaven in glory.


Paul spelled out the criteria for selecting bishops and deacons. Congregations should follow these criteria when selecting these leadership positions. These criteria are very strict but had to be followed. We are to conduct ourselves above reproach in godliness. Jesus is God manifested in the flesh, fully God and fully man. He died, buried, resurrected, glorified, ascended to heaven, and will return to earth again in His second coming.


Heavenly Father, thank You for spelling out the criteria for selecting bishops and deacons of the church. We pray for divine enablement to live godly lives beyond reproach as we await the second coming of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, in Jesus’ name, Amen.


1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Lesson 3

Lesson 3

1 Timothy 2: 1-15, instruction on prayers, world evangelism, and Christian conduct

VV 1-4, 1 Therefore I exhort first of all that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men, 2 for kings and all who are in authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and reverence. 3 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, 4 who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth.

Prayers should be offered for all people, including kings and leaders in authority so that there will be peace, reverence for God, and godliness in the community. There are four kinds of prayers, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgiving. Greek for supplication is “enteuxis”, which means a specific request concerning a person’s own needs. Greek for prayer is “proseuchomai”, which means a general request. Greek for intercession is “entygchano”, whichmeans a specific request concerning the needs of others. Greek for thanksgiving is “eucharistia”, which means gratitude. God desires world evangelism and salvation for all people.

VV 5-7, 5 For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus, 6 who gave Himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time, 7 for which I was appointed a preacher and an apostle, I am speaking the truth in Christ and not lying, a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth.

There is one God and Jesus Christ is the mediator between God and people. On the cross of Calvary, Christ had removed the wall that separated God from people. We can come to God with boldness and confidence through the blood of Christ and in the name of Christ. We do not need to go before a human high priest to confess our sins.

Greek for ransom is”lutron”, which means a payment to procure freedom for a slave. Christ gave Himself as payment to procure our freedom from slavery to sin by dying on the cross as the perfect Lamb of God. Paul preached and taught the truth of the Gospel of Christ to the Gentiles.

V 8, I desire therefore that the men pray everywhere, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting;

Greek for holy is “osious”, which means godly, pious, or righteous. Greek for wrath is “orges” which means anger. The posture of prayer is raising righteous and faithful hands in surrender and submission to God.

VV 9-15, 9 in like manner also, that the women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with propriety and moderation, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or costly clothing, 10 but, which is proper for women professing godliness, with good works. 11 Let a woman learn in silence with all submission. 12 And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence.

Women should dress modestly and in moderation avoiding extensive make-up, wearing expensive clothes and jewellery. The women should submit to men’s authority in public places of worship. Paul’s prohibition for a woman to teach in the church is not a universal command for all people of all times. This is a cultural command for first-century Israel when women were not educated. In that culture, it was appropriate for women not to teach or lead a congregation. Today women are educated and knowledgeable in every profession and this prohibition does not apply. Society and culture in first-century Israel were not the same as our modern 21st-century world.

VV 13-15, 13 For Adam was formed first, then Eve. 14 And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived fell into transgression. 15 Nevertheless she will be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love, and holiness, with self-control.

God created Adam first, not Eve. Satan deceived Eve, not Adam. This is an allusion to Genesis 3:15.

Genesis 3:15, To the woman he said, “I will make your pains in childbearing very severe; with painful labor, you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over you.”


We are to pray with supplication, for our own needs, pray generally for all needs, intercede for other people’s needs out of a heart of gratitude to God in an appropriate posture of submission. We are to evangelize to others in response to the great commission. Women are to dress modestly in public places of worship. Prohibition for women to teach or lead in church no longer applies to the 21st-century world.


Heavenly Father, thank You for instructions on prayer, evangelism, and Christian conduct in worship. We pray for the anointing of the Holy Spirit, and divine enablement to share the gospel of Christ to our family, relatives, friends, and contacts. Help us to apply scripture into our daily lives, in Jesus’ name, Amen.


1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus

Lesson 2


1 Timothy 1: 1-20, salutation, warning about false teachers

VV 1-2, 1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the commandment of God our Savior and the Lord Jesus Christ, our hope, 2 To Timothy, a true son in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord.

Paul called was an apostle authorized by God and the Lord Jesus Christ. Greek for apostle is “apostolos”, which means ambassador or emissary. Greek for commandment is “epitage”, which means authority. Paul was an ambassador of Christ, our Savior, and hope, by the authority of God. Paul wrote this epistle to Timothy, his protege, and spiritual son in the faith. He pronounced to Timothy a blessing of grace, mercy, and peace from God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, our Lord.

VV 3-4, 3 As I urged you when I went into Macedonia, remain in Ephesus that you may charge some that they teach no other doctrine, 4 nor give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which cause disputes rather than godly edification which is in faith.

When Paul was in Macedonia, he encouraged Timothy to stay back in Ephesus because false teachers had infiltrated the Ephesian church with false doctrines, myths, and disputable genealogies.

VV 5-7, 5 Now the purpose of the commandment is love from a pure heart, from a good conscience, and from sincere faith, 6 from which some, having strayed, have turned aside to idle talk, 7 desiring to be teachers of the law, understanding neither what they say nor the things which they affirm.

Paul encouraged Timothy to love with a pure heart, good conscience, and sincere faith. Paul warned Timothy about legalistic teachers who were ignorant of the law.

VV 8-11, 8 But we know that the law is good if one uses it lawfully, 9 knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous person, but for the lawless and insubordinate, for the ungodly and for sinners, for the unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 for fornicators, for sodomites, for kidnappers, for liars, for perjurers, and if there is any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine, 11 according to the glorious gospel of the blessed God which was committed to my trust.

The law is good but people are carnal and could not keep the law. The law was not made for the righteous but for sinners, murderers, sexual perverts, kidnappers, liars, etc. The law points to people that they are sinners who need a Saviour. The law is a mirror that reflects and reveals sin. The law is a schoolmaster to point people to Christ.

VV 12-14, 12 And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord who has enabled me, because He counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry, 13 although I was formerly a blasphemer, a persecutor, and an insolent man; but I obtained mercy because I did it ignorantly in unbelief. 14 And the grace of our Lord was exceedingly abundant, with faith and love which are in Christ Jesus.

Greek for insolent is “hubrizo”, which means violent. Paul thank the Lord for His superabundant love, mercy, and grace to appoint him as an apostle even though he was once a blasphemer, a persecutor of Christians, and a violent man.

VV 15-17, 15 This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief. 16 However, for this reason, I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might show all longsuffering, as a pattern to those who are going to believe on Him for everlasting life. 17 Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, to God who alone is wise, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen.

Christ came to earth to save sinners by grace and through faith. Paul called himself the chief of sinners. Greek for long-suffering is “makrothumia”, which means patience, Christ is a God of love, grace, mercy, and patience. In doxology, Paul proclaimed Christ as the eternal King, who is immortal, invisible, wise, honorable, and glorious.

VV 18-20, 18 This charge I commit to you, son Timothy, according to the prophecies previously made concerning you, that by them you may wage the good warfare, 19 having faith and a good conscience, which some having rejected, concerning the faith have suffered shipwreck, 20 of whom are Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I delivered to Satan that they may learn not to blaspheme.

Greek for charge is “paragello”, which means a military order. Paul ordered Timothy to fight the good fight against false teachers with faith and a good conscience. Paul singled out two false teachers and blasphemers by name, Hymenaeus and Alexander.


Paul’s instructions to Timothy also apply to us. We are encouraged to love with a pure heart, good conscience, and sincere faith. We are to discern and reject false doctrines and false teachers by having a good basic knowledge of scripture. We shall know the truth by studying scripture diligently and the truth shall set us free from deception. Christ came to earth to save sinners by grace through faith in Him.


Heavenly Father, thank You for the timeless truth of Your Word that transcends time, culture, geography, race, and history. We pray for Your Word to be deeply imprinted into our hearts. We pray for divine enablement for understanding and application, in Jesus’ name, Amen.


1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus

Lesson 1



Heavenly Father, we acknowledged that You are Almighty God, God of creation, God of salvation, God of redemption, and God of reconciliation. We pray for divine inspiration, understanding, insight, and enablement to understand and apply Your Word, in Jesus’ name, Amen.

Author, Place, Date, Purpose, and Recipient

Paul wrote a personal letter to Timothy to encourage, warn, and instruct him. He penned this letter from Macedonia between 62 to 64 after released from his first Romans imprisonment. Timothy was Paul’s protege, spiritual god-son, and pastor of the Ephesian church.

This is one of three pastoral epistles, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus. Ephesus was a Roman port city in Asia Minor and was home to the temple of Diana or Artemis. False teachers who prohibited marriage and eating of certain foods had infiltrated the Ephesian church.


Some of the themes are false doctrines, holiness, godliness, prayer, world evangelism, Christian conduct in worship, qualifications of church leaders, and Christian relationships.


1: 1-20, Salutation, warning about false teachers

2:1- 2:16, Prayers, evangelism, Christian conduct during worship

3:1-14, Qualifications of overseers and deacons

4: 1-16, warning about false teachers, Instructions for Timothy

5:1-25, Instructions for the church, part 1

6:1-21, Instructions for the church, part 2


Paul’s warnings and instructions to Timothy and the Ephesian church apply to us. We are to reject false teachers, pray, evangelize, and conduct ourselves properly in church worship. We are to adhere to the criteria for choosing church leaders as spelled out by Paul.


Heavenly Father, thank You that we can study the epistle of 1 Timothy. Open our eyes and ears as we open up holy scriptures. Open our understanding to explore the riches of Your word. We pray for insight into controversial passages, in Jesus’ name, Amen.